Learning methodology

To ensure a level of excellence and a useful training for professional life, EFPA training is based on three pillars:

Knowledge and understanding (K):

- Knowledge includes those behaviours and test situations, which emphasise the memory and retention. Remembering includes recognition and recall of ideas, material or phenomena. The objects of knowledge can be various, such as knowledge of terminology, specific facts, conventions, classifications and categories, criteria, methodologies, principles, theories and structures.

- Understanding refers to a type of intellectual capacity such that the individual knows what is being communicated. The individual can make use of the material or idea being communicated without necessarily relating it to other material or seeing its fullest implications.


- Comprehension includes the ability to translate mathematical and verbal material into symbolic statements and vice versa (so called translation), the reordering, rearrangement or a theoretical view on (case) material (so called interpretation), and the extensions of tendencies beyond the given data in order to determine implications, consequences or effects (so called extrapolation).

Analysis, synthesis, evaluation (A):

- Analysis refers to the breakdown of any communication into its constituent element such that the relative hierarchy of ideas is made clear and the relations between the ideas are made explicit. Analysis includes the evaluation of elements, like ability to recognise unstated assumptions, or the ability to distinguish facts from ideas or opinions.

- Synthesis refers to the fusion of elements and parts so as to form a whole. This involves the process of working with pieces, parts, elements, etc. and arranging and combining them in such a manner as to constitute a pattern or structure which was unclear or not explicit before. The objective of synthesis can be the production of a proposed set of operations, a plan, and a set of abstract relations or a unique communication.

- Evaluation refers to the judgements of materials and methods for given purposes. The judgements concern the extent to which materials and methods satisfy both internal criteria, like consistency and logical accuracy, and external criteria, like functionality or honesty. Evaluation includes the use of standards of appraisal.

Application (AP):

- Application refers to the use of abstractions in particular and concrete situations. The particular and concrete situations could be anything from a case study to a social event. The abstractions may take the form of general ideas, rules of procedures, or generalised methods. The abstractions may also take the form of technical principles, ideas and theories, which must be both remembered and applied.